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How to use the toString method in Java?


Question

Can anybody explain to me the concept of the toString() method, defined in the Object class? How is it used, and what is its purpose?

2015/03/07
1
118
3/7/2015 11:31:44 PM

Accepted Answer

From the Object.toString docs:

Returns a string representation of the object. In general, the toString method returns a string that "textually represents" this object. The result should be a concise but informative representation that is easy for a person to read. It is recommended that all subclasses override this method.

The toString method for class Object returns a string consisting of the name of the class of which the object is an instance, the at-sign character `@', and the unsigned hexadecimal representation of the hash code of the object. In other words, this method returns a string equal to the value of:

getClass().getName() + '@' + Integer.toHexString(hashCode())

Example:

String[] mystr ={"a","b","c"};
System.out.println("mystr.toString: " + mystr.toString());

output:- mystr.toString: [Ljava.lang.String;@13aaa14a
2019/12/16
81
12/16/2019 8:22:46 PM

Use of the String.toString:

Whenever you require to explore the constructor called value in the String form, you can simply use String.toString... for an example...

package pack1;

import java.util.*;

class Bank {

    String n;
    String add;
    int an;
    int bal;
    int dep;

    public Bank(String n, String add, int an, int bal) {

        this.add = add;
        this.bal = bal;
        this.an = an;
        this.n = n;

    }

    public String toString() {
        return "Name of the customer.:" + this.n + ",, "
                + "Address of the customer.:" + this.add + ",, " + "A/c no..:"
                + this.an + ",, " + "Balance in A/c..:" + this.bal;
    }
}

public class Demo2 {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        List<Bank> l = new LinkedList<Bank>();

        Bank b1 = new Bank("naseem1", "Darbhanga,bihar", 123, 1000);
        Bank b2 = new Bank("naseem2", "patna,bihar", 124, 1500);
        Bank b3 = new Bank("naseem3", "madhubani,bihar", 125, 1600);
        Bank b4 = new Bank("naseem4", "samastipur,bihar", 126, 1700);
        Bank b5 = new Bank("naseem5", "muzafferpur,bihar", 127, 1800);
        l.add(b1);
        l.add(b2);
        l.add(b3);
        l.add(b4);
        l.add(b5);
        Iterator<Bank> i = l.iterator();
        while (i.hasNext()) {
            System.out.println(i.next());
        }
    }

}

... copy this program into your Eclipse, and run it... you will get the ideas about String.toString...

2019/12/16

The toString() method returns a textual representation of an object. A basic implementation is already included in java.lang.Object and so because all objects inherit from java.lang.Object it is guaranteed that every object in Java has this method.

Overriding the method is always a good idea, especially when it comes to debugging, because debuggers often show objects by the result of the toString() method. So use a meaningful implementation but use it for technical purposes. The application logic should use getters:

public class Contact {
  private String firstName;
  private String lastName;
  public Contact (String firstName, String lastName) {
    this.firstName = firstName;
    this.lastName = lastName;
  }
  public String getFirstName() {return firstName;}
  public String getLastName() {return lastName;}

  public String getContact() {
    return firstName + " " + lastName;
  }

  @Override
  public String toString() {
    return "["+getContact()+"]";
  }
}
2017/04/19

It may optionally have uses within the context of an application but far more often it is used for debugging purposes. For example, when you hit a breakpoint in an IDE, it's far easier to read a meaningful toString() of objects than it is to inspect their members.

There is no set requirement for what a toString() method should do. By convention, most often it will tell you the name of the class and the value of pertinent data members. More often than not, toString() methods are auto-generated in IDEs.

Relying on particular output from a toString() method or parsing it within a program is a bad idea. Whatever you do, don't go down that route.

2010/09/01

toString() returns a string/textual representation of the object. Commonly used for diagnostic purposes like debugging, logging etc., the toString() method is used to read meaningful details about the object.

It is automatically invoked when the object is passed to println, print, printf, String.format(), assert or the string concatenation operator.

The default implementation of toString() in class Object returns a string consisting of the class name of this object followed by @ sign and the unsigned hexadecimal representation of the hash code of this object using the following logic,

getClass().getName() + "@" + Integer.toHexString(hashCode())

For example, the following

public final class Coordinates {

    private final double x;
    private final double y;

    public Coordinates(double x, double y) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Coordinates coordinates = new Coordinates(1, 2);
        System.out.println("Bourne's current location - " + coordinates);
    }
}

prints

Bourne's current location - [email protected] //concise, but not really useful to the reader

Now, overriding toString() in the Coordinates class as below,

@Override
public String toString() {
    return "(" + x + ", " + y + ")";
}

results in

Bourne's current location - (1.0, 2.0) //concise and informative

The usefulness of overriding toString() becomes even more when the method is invoked on collections containing references to these objects. For example, the following

public static void main(String[] args) {
    Coordinates bourneLocation = new Coordinates(90, 0);
    Coordinates bondLocation = new Coordinates(45, 90);
    Map<String, Coordinates> locations = new HashMap<String, Coordinates>();
    locations.put("Jason Bourne", bourneLocation);
    locations.put("James Bond", bondLocation);
    System.out.println(locations);
}

prints

{James Bond=(45.0, 90.0), Jason Bourne=(90.0, 0.0)}

instead of this,

{James [email protected], Jason [email protected]}

Few implementation pointers,

  1. You should almost always override the toString() method. One of the cases where the override wouldn't be required is utility classes that group static utility methods, in the manner of java.util.Math. The case of override being not required is pretty intuitive; almost always you would know.
  2. The string returned should be concise and informative, ideally self-explanatory.
  3. At least, the fields used to establish equivalence between two different objects i.e. the fields used in the equals() method implementation should be spit out by the toString() method.
  4. Provide accessors/getters for all of the instance fields that are contained in the string returned. For example, in the Coordinates class,

    public double getX() {
        return x;
    }
    public double getY() {
        return y;
    }
    

A comprehensive coverage of the toString() method is in Item 10 of the book, Effective Java™, Second Edition, By Josh Bloch.

2015/10/31

Coding:

public class Test {

    public static void main(String args[]) {

        ArrayList<Student> a = new ArrayList<Student>();
        a.add(new Student("Steve", 12, "Daniel"));
        a.add(new Student("Sachin", 10, "Tendulkar"));

        System.out.println(a);

        display(a);

    }

    static void display(ArrayList<Student> stu) {

        stu.add(new Student("Yuvi", 12, "Bhajji"));

        System.out.println(stu);

    }

}

Student.java:

public class Student {

    public String name;

    public int id;

    public String email;

    Student() {

    }

    Student(String name, int id, String email) {

        this.name = name;
        this.id = id;
        this.email = email;

    }

     public String toString(){           //using these toString to avoid the output like this [[email protected], [email protected]]
          return name+" "+id+" "+email;     
         }  


    public String getName(){

        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name){

        this.name=name;
    }

    public int getId(){

        return id;
    }

    public void setId(int id){

        this.id=id;
    }

    public String getEmail(){

        return email;

    }

    public void setEmail(String email){

        this.email=email;
    }
}

Output:

[Steve 12 Daniel, Sachin 10 Tendulkar]

[Steve 12 Daniel, Sachin 10 Tendulkar, Yuvi 12 Bhajji]

If you are not used toString() in Pojo(Student.java) class,you will get an output like [[email protected], [email protected]].To avoid these kind of issue we are using toString() method.

2015/12/29

Source: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3615721
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