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How do I get into a Docker container's shell?


Question

I'm getting started working with Docker. I'm using the WordPress base image and docker-compose.

I'm trying to ssh into one of the containers to inspect the files/directories that were created during the initial build. I tried to run docker-compose run containername ls -la, but that didn't do anything. Even if it did, I'd rather have a console where I can traverse the directory structure, rather than run a single command. What is the right way to do this with Docker?

2019/02/03
1
1232
2/3/2019 4:25:40 PM

Accepted Answer

docker attach will let you connect to your Docker container, but this isn't really the same thing as ssh. If your container is running a webserver, for example, docker attach will probably connect you to the stdout of the web server process. It won't necessarily give you a shell.

The docker exec command is probably what you are looking for; this will let you run arbitrary commands inside an existing container. For example:

docker exec -it <mycontainer> bash

Of course, whatever command you are running must exist in the container filesystem.

In the above command <mycontainer> is the name or ID of the target container. It doesn't matter whether or not you're using docker compose; just run docker ps and use either the ID (a hexadecimal string displayed in the first column) or the name (displayed in the final column). E.g., given:

$ docker ps
d2d4a89aaee9        larsks/mini-httpd   "mini_httpd -d /cont   7 days ago          Up 7 days                               web                 

I can run:

$ docker exec -it web ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
18: eth0: <BROADCAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP 
    link/ether 02:42:ac:11:00:03 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 172.17.0.3/16 scope global eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::42:acff:fe11:3/64 scope link 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

I could accomplish the same thing by running:

$ docker exec -it d2d4a89aaee9 ip addr

Similarly, I could start a shell in the container;

$ docker exec -it web sh
/ # echo This is inside the container.
This is inside the container.
/ # exit
$
2020/04/12
1830
4/12/2020 12:17:24 PM

To bash into a running container, type this:

docker exec -t -i container_name /bin/bash

or

docker exec -ti container_name /bin/bash

or

docker exec -ti container_name sh

Let's say, for reasons that are your own, you really do want to use SSH. It takes a few steps, but it can be done. Here are the commands that you would run inside the container to set it up...

apt-get update
apt-get install openssh-server

mkdir /var/run/sshd
chmod 0755 /var/run/sshd
/usr/sbin/sshd

useradd --create-home --shell /bin/bash --groups sudo username ## includes 'sudo'
passwd username ## Enter a password

apt-get install x11-apps ## X11 demo applications (optional)
ifconfig | awk '/inet addr/{print substr($2,6)}' ## Display IP address (optional)

Now you can even run graphical applications (if they are installed in the container) using X11 forwarding to the SSH client:

ssh -X [email protected]
xeyes ## run an X11 demo app in the client

Here are some related resources:

2018/08/05

If you're here looking for a Docker Compose-specific answer like I was, it provides an easy way in without having to look up the generated container ID.

docker-compose exec takes the name of the service as per your docker-compose.yml file.

So to get a Bash shell for your 'web' service, you can do:

$ docker-compose exec web bash
2018/08/05

Notice: this answer promotes a tool I've written.

I've created a containerized SSH server that you can 'stick' to any running container. This way you can create compositions with every container. The only requirement is that the container has Bash.

The following example would start an SSH server attached to a container with name 'my-container'.

docker run -d -p 2222:22 \
  -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock \
  -e CONTAINER=my-container -e AUTH_MECHANISM=noAuth \
  jeroenpeeters/docker-ssh

ssh localhost -p 2222

When you connect to this SSH service (with your SSH client of choice) a Bash session will be started in the container with name 'my-container'.

For more pointers and documentation see: https://github.com/jeroenpeeters/docker-ssh

2017/05/25

If you're using Docker on Windows and want to get shell access to a container, use this:

winpty docker exec -it <container_id> sh

Most likely, you already have Git Bash installed. If you don't, make sure to install it.

2017/02/09