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"PKIX path building failed" and "unable to find valid certification path to requested target"


Question

I'm trying to get tweets using twitter4j library for my java project. On my first run I got an error about certificate sun.security.validator.ValidatorException and sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException. Then I added twitter certificate by:

C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_45\jre\lib\security>keytool -importcert -trustcacerts -file PathToCert -alias ca_alias -keystore "C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_45\jre\lib\security\cacerts"

But without success. Here is the procedure to get tweets:

public static void main(String[] args) throws TwitterException {
    ConfigurationBuilder cb = new ConfigurationBuilder();
    cb.setDebugEnabled(true)
        .setOAuthConsumerKey("myConsumerKey")
        .setOAuthConsumerSecret("myConsumerSecret")
        .setOAuthAccessToken("myAccessToken")
        .setOAuthAccessTokenSecret("myAccessTokenSecret");

    TwitterFactory tf = new TwitterFactory(cb.build());
    Twitter twitter = tf.getInstance();

    try {
        Query query = new Query("iphone");
        QueryResult result;
        result = twitter.search(query);
        System.out.println("Total amount of tweets: " + result.getTweets().size());
        List<Status> tweets = result.getTweets();

        for (Status tweet : tweets) {
            System.out.println("@" + tweet.getUser().getScreenName() + " : " + tweet.getText());
        }
    } catch (TwitterException te) {
        te.printStackTrace();
        System.out.println("Failed to search tweets: " + te.getMessage());
    }

And here is the error:

sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: PKIX path building failed: sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target
Relevant discussions can be found on the Internet at:
    http://www.google.co.jp/search?q=d35baff5 or
    http://www.google.co.jp/search?q=1446302e
TwitterException{exceptionCode=[d35baff5-1446302e 43208640-747fd158 43208640-747fd158 43208640-747fd158], statusCode=-1, message=null, code=-1, retryAfter=-1, rateLimitStatus=null, version=3.0.5}
    at twitter4j.internal.http.HttpClientImpl.request(HttpClientImpl.java:177)
    at twitter4j.internal.http.HttpClientWrapper.request(HttpClientWrapper.java:61)
    at twitter4j.internal.http.HttpClientWrapper.get(HttpClientWrapper.java:81)
    at twitter4j.TwitterImpl.get(TwitterImpl.java:1929)
    at twitter4j.TwitterImpl.search(TwitterImpl.java:306)
    at jku.cc.servlets.TweetsAnalyzer.main(TweetsAnalyzer.java:38)
Caused by: javax.net.ssl.SSLHandshakeException: sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: PKIX path building failed: sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target
    at sun.security.ssl.Alerts.getSSLException(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.SSLSocketImpl.fatal(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.Handshaker.fatalSE(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.Handshaker.fatalSE(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.ClientHandshaker.serverCertificate(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.ClientHandshaker.processMessage(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.Handshaker.processLoop(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.Handshaker.process_record(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.SSLSocketImpl.readRecord(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.SSLSocketImpl.performInitialHandshake(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.SSLSocketImpl.startHandshake(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.SSLSocketImpl.startHandshake(Unknown Source)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.https.HttpsClient.afterConnect(Unknown Source)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.https.AbstractDelegateHttpsURLConnection.connect(Unknown Source)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.http.HttpURLConnection.getInputStream(Unknown Source)
    at java.net.HttpURLConnection.getResponseCode(Unknown Source)
    at sun.net.www.protocol.https.HttpsURLConnectionImpl.getResponseCode(Unknown Source)
    at twitter4j.internal.http.HttpResponseImpl.<init>(HttpResponseImpl.java:34)
    at twitter4j.internal.http.HttpClientImpl.request(HttpClientImpl.java:141)
    ... 5 more
Caused by: sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: PKIX path building failed: sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target
    at sun.security.validator.PKIXValidator.doBuild(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.validator.PKIXValidator.engineValidate(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.validator.Validator.validate(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.X509TrustManagerImpl.validate(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.X509TrustManagerImpl.checkTrusted(Unknown Source)
    at sun.security.ssl.X509TrustManagerImpl.checkServerTrusted(Unknown Source)
    ... 20 more
Caused by: sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target
    at sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilder.engineBuild(Unknown Source)
    at java.security.cert.CertPathBuilder.build(Unknown Source)
    ... 26 more
Failed to search tweets: sun.security.validator.ValidatorException: PKIX path building failed: sun.security.provider.certpath.SunCertPathBuilderException: unable to find valid certification path to requested target
2020/01/06
1
458
1/6/2020 11:58:09 AM

Accepted Answer

  1. Go to URL in your browser:
    • firefox - click on HTTPS certificate chain (the lock icon right next to URL address). Click "more info" > "security" > "show certificate" > "details" > "export..". Pickup the name and choose file type example.cer
    • chrome - click on site icon left to address in address bar, select "Certificate" -> "Details" -> "Export" and save in format "Der-encoded binary, single certificate".
  2. Now you have file with keystore and you have to add it to your JVM. Determine location of cacerts files, eg. C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre1.6.0_22\lib\security\cacerts.

  3. Next import the example.cer file into cacerts in command line:

keytool -import -alias example -keystore C:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre1.6.0_22\lib\security\cacerts -file example.cer

You will be asked for password which default is changeit

Restart your JVM/PC.

source: http://magicmonster.com/kb/prg/java/ssl/pkix_path_building_failed.html

2020/02/28
620
2/28/2020 1:56:57 PM

After many hours trying to build cert files to get my Java 6 installation working with the new twitter cert's, I finally stumbled onto an incredibly simple solution buried in a comment in one of the message boards. Just copy the cacerts file from a Java 7 installation and overwrite the one in your Java 6 installation. Probably best to make a backup of the cacerts file first, but then you just copy the new one in and BOOM! it just works.

Note that I actually copied a Windows cacerts file onto a Linux installation and it worked just fine.

The file is located in jre/lib/security/cacerts in both the old and new Java jdk installations.

Hope this saves someone else hours of aggravation.

2014/02/02

MY UI approach:

  1. Download keystore explorer from here
  2. Open $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts
  3. enter PW: changeit (Can be changeme on Mac)
  4. Import your .crt file

CMD-Line:

  1. keytool -importcert -file jetty.crt -alias jetty -keystore $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts
  2. enter PW: changeit (Can be changeme on Mac)
2020/01/29

I have stumbled upon this issue which took many hours of research to fix, specially with auto-generated certificates, which unlike Official ones, are quite tricky and Java does not like them that much.

Please check the following link: Solve Problem with certificates in Java

Basically you have to add the certificate from the server to the Java Home certs.

  1. Generate or Get your certificate and configure Tomcat to use it in Servers.xml
  2. Download the Java source code of the class InstallCert and execute it while the server is running, providing the following arguments server[:port]. No password is needed, as the original password works for the Java certs ("changeit").
  3. The Program will connect to the server and Java will throw an exception, it will analyze the certificate provided by the server and allow you to create a jssecerts file inside the directory where you executed the Program (If executed from Eclipse then make sure you configure the Work directory in Run -> Configurations).
  4. Manually copy that file to $JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security

After following these steps, the connections with the certificate will not generate exceptions anymore within Java.

The following source code is important and it disappeared from (Sun) Oracle blogs, the only page I found it was on the link provided, therefore I am attaching it in the answer for any reference.

/*
 * Copyright 2006 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All Rights Reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 *
 *   - Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 *
 *   - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *     documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 *
 *   - Neither the name of Sun Microsystems nor the names of its
 *     contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
 *     from this software without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS
 * IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
 * THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
 * PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
 * CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
 * EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
 * PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
 * PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
 * NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
 * SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 */
/**
 * Originally from:
 * http://blogs.sun.com/andreas/resource/InstallCert.java
 * Use:
 * java InstallCert hostname
 * Example:
 *% java InstallCert ecc.fedora.redhat.com
 */

import javax.net.ssl.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.security.KeyStore;
import java.security.MessageDigest;
import java.security.cert.CertificateException;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;

/**
 * Class used to add the server's certificate to the KeyStore
 * with your trusted certificates.
 */
public class InstallCert {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        String host;
        int port;
        char[] passphrase;
        if ((args.length == 1) || (args.length == 2)) {
            String[] c = args[0].split(":");
            host = c[0];
            port = (c.length == 1) ? 443 : Integer.parseInt(c[1]);
            String p = (args.length == 1) ? "changeit" : args[1];
            passphrase = p.toCharArray();
        } else {
            System.out.println("Usage: java InstallCert [:port] [passphrase]");
            return;
        }

        File file = new File("jssecacerts");
        if (file.isFile() == false) {
            char SEP = File.separatorChar;
            File dir = new File(System.getProperty("java.home") + SEP
                    + "lib" + SEP + "security");
            file = new File(dir, "jssecacerts");
            if (file.isFile() == false) {
                file = new File(dir, "cacerts");
            }
        }
        System.out.println("Loading KeyStore " + file + "...");
        InputStream in = new FileInputStream(file);
        KeyStore ks = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());
        ks.load(in, passphrase);
        in.close();

        SSLContext context = SSLContext.getInstance("TLS");
        TrustManagerFactory tmf =
                TrustManagerFactory.getInstance(TrustManagerFactory.getDefaultAlgorithm());
        tmf.init(ks);
        X509TrustManager defaultTrustManager = (X509TrustManager) tmf.getTrustManagers()[0];
        SavingTrustManager tm = new SavingTrustManager(defaultTrustManager);
        context.init(null, new TrustManager[]{tm}, null);
        SSLSocketFactory factory = context.getSocketFactory();

        System.out.println("Opening connection to " + host + ":" + port + "...");
        SSLSocket socket = (SSLSocket) factory.createSocket(host, port);
        socket.setSoTimeout(10000);
        try {
            System.out.println("Starting SSL handshake...");
            socket.startHandshake();
            socket.close();
            System.out.println();
            System.out.println("No errors, certificate is already trusted");
        } catch (SSLException e) {
            System.out.println();
            e.printStackTrace(System.out);
        }

        X509Certificate[] chain = tm.chain;
        if (chain == null) {
            System.out.println("Could not obtain server certificate chain");
            return;
        }

        BufferedReader reader =
                new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));

        System.out.println();
        System.out.println("Server sent " + chain.length + " certificate(s):");
        System.out.println();
        MessageDigest sha1 = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA1");
        MessageDigest md5 = MessageDigest.getInstance("MD5");
        for (int i = 0; i < chain.length; i++) {
            X509Certificate cert = chain[i];
            System.out.println
                    (" " + (i + 1) + " Subject " + cert.getSubjectDN());
            System.out.println("   Issuer  " + cert.getIssuerDN());
            sha1.update(cert.getEncoded());
            System.out.println("   sha1    " + toHexString(sha1.digest()));
            md5.update(cert.getEncoded());
            System.out.println("   md5     " + toHexString(md5.digest()));
            System.out.println();
        }

        System.out.println("Enter certificate to add to trusted keystore or 'q' to quit: [1]");
        String line = reader.readLine().trim();
        int k;
        try {
            k = (line.length() == 0) ? 0 : Integer.parseInt(line) - 1;
        } catch (NumberFormatException e) {
            System.out.println("KeyStore not changed");
            return;
        }

        X509Certificate cert = chain[k];
        String alias = host + "-" + (k + 1);
        ks.setCertificateEntry(alias, cert);

        OutputStream out = new FileOutputStream("jssecacerts");
        ks.store(out, passphrase);
        out.close();

        System.out.println();
        System.out.println(cert);
        System.out.println();
        System.out.println
                ("Added certificate to keystore 'jssecacerts' using alias '"
                        + alias + "'");
    }

    private static final char[] HEXDIGITS = "0123456789abcdef".toCharArray();

    private static String toHexString(byte[] bytes) {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(bytes.length * 3);
        for (int b : bytes) {
            b &= 0xff;
            sb.append(HEXDIGITS[b >> 4]);
            sb.append(HEXDIGITS[b & 15]);
            sb.append(' ');
        }
        return sb.toString();
    }

    private static class SavingTrustManager implements X509TrustManager {

        private final X509TrustManager tm;
        private X509Certificate[] chain;

        SavingTrustManager(X509TrustManager tm) {
            this.tm = tm;
        }

        public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType)
                throws CertificateException {
            throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
        }

        public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType)
                throws CertificateException {
            this.chain = chain;
            tm.checkServerTrusted(chain, authType);
        }
    }
}
2016/01/08

1. Check the certificate

Try to load the target URL in browser and view the site's certificate (usually it's accessible by the icon with the lock sign. It's on the left or right side of the browser's address bar) whether it's expired or untrusted by other reason.

2. Install latest versions of JRE and JDK

New versions usually come with the updated set of the trusted certificates.

Also if it's possible, uninstall old versions. This will make misconfiguration errors explicit.

3. Check your configuration:

  • Check where your JAVA_HOME environment variable points to.
  • Check which java version you use to run the program. In IntelliJ check:
    • File -> Project Structure... -> Project Settings -> Project -> Project SDK:
    • File -> Project Structure... -> Platform Settings -> SDKs

4. Copy whole keystore from the new Java version

If you develop under the JDK other than the latest available - try to replace the %JAVA_HOME%/jre/lib/security/cacerts file with the new one from the latest installed JRE (make a backup copy first) as @jeremy-goodell suggests in his answer

5. Add certificate(s) to your keystore

If nothing above solves your problem use keytool to save certificate(s) to the Java's keystore:

keytool -trustcacerts -keystore "%JAVA_HOME%jre\lib\security\cacerts" -storepass changeit -importcert -alias <alias_name> -file <path_to_crt_file>

File with the certificate can be obtained from the browser as @MagGGG suggests in his answer.

Note 1: you may need to repeat this for every certificate in the chain to you site's certificate. Start from the root one.

Note 2: <alias_name> should be unique among the keys in the store or keytool will show an error.

To get list of all the certificates in the store you may run:

keytool -list -trustcacerts -keystore "%JAVA_HOME%jre\lib\security\cacerts" -storepass changeit

In case something goes wrong this will help you to remove certificate from the store:

keytool -delete -alias <alias_name> -keystore "%JAVA_HOME%jre\lib\security\cacerts" -storepass changeit
2019/07/02

-Dmaven.wagon.http.ssl.insecure=true -Dmaven.wagon.http.ssl.allowall=true

It is used for jump the certificate validation.

Warning Only use for development purposes for this is unsecure!

2019/12/12