Does Python's time.time() return the local or UTC timestamp?
time.time() in the Python time module return the system's time or the time in UTC?
time.time() function returns the number of seconds since the epoch, as seconds. Note that the "epoch" is defined as the start of January 1st, 1970 in UTC. So the epoch is defined in terms of UTC and establishes a global moment in time. No matter where you are "seconds past epoch" (time.time()) returns the same value at the same moment.
Here is some sample output I ran on my computer, converting it to a string as well.
Python 2.7.3 (default, Apr 24 2012, 00:00:54) [GCC 4.7.0 20120414 (prerelease)] on linux2 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import time >>> ts = time.time() >>> print ts 1355563265.81 >>> import datetime >>> st = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(ts).strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S') >>> print st 2012-12-15 01:21:05 >>>
ts variable is the time returned in seconds. I then converted it to a string using the
datetime library making it a string that is human readable.
This is for the text form of a timestamp that can be used in your text files. (The title of the question was different in the past, so the introduction to this answer was changed to clarify how it could be interpreted as the time. [updated 2016-01-14])
You can get the timestamp as a string using the
.utcnow() of the
>>> import datetime >>> print datetime.datetime.utcnow() 2012-12-15 10:14:51.898000
now differs from
utcnow as expected -- otherwise they work the same way:
>>> print datetime.datetime.now() 2012-12-15 11:15:09.205000
You can render the timestamp to the string explicitly:
>>> str(datetime.datetime.now()) '2012-12-15 11:15:24.984000'
Or you can be even more explicit to format the timestamp the way you like:
>>> datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%A, %d. %B %Y %I:%M%p") 'Saturday, 15. December 2012 11:19AM'
If you want the ISO format, use the
.isoformat() method of the object:
>>> datetime.datetime.now().isoformat() '2013-11-18T08:18:31.809000'
You can use these in variables for calculations and printing without conversions.
>>> ts = datetime.datetime.now() >>> tf = datetime.datetime.now() >>> te = tf - ts >>> print ts 2015-04-21 12:02:19.209915 >>> print tf 2015-04-21 12:02:30.449895 >>> print te 0:00:11.239980
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Based on the answer from #squiguy, to get a true timestamp I would type cast it from float.
>>> import time >>> ts = int(time.time()) >>> print(ts) 1389177318
At least that's the concept.
The answer could be neither or both.
time.time()returns approximately the number of seconds elapsed since the Epoch. The result doesn't depend on timezone so it is neither UTC nor local time. Here's POSIX defintion for "Seconds Since the Epoch".
time.time()doesn't require your system's clock to be synchronized so it reflects its value (though it has nothing to do with local timezone). Different computers may get different results at the same time. On the other hand if your computer time is synchronized then it is easy to get UTC time from the timestamp (if we ignore leap seconds):
from datetime import datetime utc_dt = datetime.utcfromtimestamp(timestamp)
On how to get timestamps from UTC time in various Python versions, see How can I get a date converted to seconds since epoch according to UTC?
I eventually settled for:
>>> import time >>> time.mktime(time.gmtime()) 1509467455.0
There is no such thing as an "epoch" in a specific timezone. The epoch is well-defined as a specific moment in time, so if you change the timezone, the time itself changes as well. Specifically, this time is
Jan 1 1970 00:00:00 UTC. So
time.time() returns the number of seconds since the epoch.
timestamp is always time in utc, but when you call
datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp it returns you time in your local timezone corresponding to this timestamp, so result depend of your locale.
>>> import time, datetime >>> time.time() 1564494136.0434234 >>> datetime.datetime.now() datetime.datetime(2019, 7, 30, 16, 42, 3, 899179) >>> datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(time.time()) datetime.datetime(2019, 7, 30, 16, 43, 12, 4610)
There exist nice library
arrow with different behaviour. In same case it returns you time object with UTC timezone.
>>> import arrow >>> arrow.now() <Arrow [2019-07-30T16:43:27.868760+03:00]> >>> arrow.get(time.time()) <Arrow [2019-07-30T13:43:56.565342+00:00]>