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How do I check if an object has a specific property in JavaScript?


Question

How do I check if an object has a specific property in JavaScript?

Consider:

x = {'key': 1};
if ( x.hasOwnProperty('key') ) {
    //Do this
}

Is that the best way to do it?

2019/09/29
1
1519
9/29/2019 11:33:38 PM

Accepted Answer

I'm really confused by the answers that have been given - most of them are just outright incorrect. Of course you can have object properties that have undefined, null, or false values. So simply reducing the property check to typeof this[property] or, even worse, x.key will give you completely misleading results.

It depends on what you're looking for. If you want to know if an object physically contains a property (and it is not coming from somewhere up on the prototype chain) then object.hasOwnProperty is the way to go. All modern browsers support it. (It was missing in older versions of Safari - 2.0.1 and older - but those versions of the browser are rarely used any more.)

If what you're looking for is if an object has a property on it that is iterable (when you iterate over the properties of the object, it will appear) then doing: prop in object will give you your desired effect.

Since using hasOwnProperty is probably what you want, and considering that you may want a fallback method, I present to you the following solution:

var obj = {
    a: undefined,
    b: null,
    c: false
};

// a, b, c all found
for ( var prop in obj ) {
    document.writeln( "Object1: " + prop );
}

function Class(){
    this.a = undefined;
    this.b = null;
    this.c = false;
}

Class.prototype = {
    a: undefined,
    b: true,
    c: true,
    d: true,
    e: true
};

var obj2 = new Class();

// a, b, c, d, e found
for ( var prop in obj2 ) {
    document.writeln( "Object2: " + prop );
}

function hasOwnProperty(obj, prop) {
    var proto = obj.__proto__ || obj.constructor.prototype;
    return (prop in obj) &&
        (!(prop in proto) || proto[prop] !== obj[prop]);
}

if ( Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty ) {
    var hasOwnProperty = function(obj, prop) {
        return obj.hasOwnProperty(prop);
    }
}

// a, b, c found in modern browsers
// b, c found in Safari 2.0.1 and older
for ( var prop in obj2 ) {
    if ( hasOwnProperty(obj2, prop) ) {
        document.writeln( "Object2 w/ hasOwn: " + prop );
    }
}

The above is a working, cross-browser, solution to hasOwnProperty, with one caveat: It is unable to distinguish between cases where an identical property is on the prototype and on the instance - it just assumes that it's coming from the prototype. You could shift it to be more lenient or strict, based upon your situation, but at the very least this should be more helpful.

2013/04/08
1445
4/8/2013 12:12:22 AM

With Underscore.js or (even better) lodash:

_.has(x, 'key');

Which calls Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty, but (a) is shorter to type, and (b) uses "a safe reference to hasOwnProperty" (i.e. it works even if hasOwnProperty is overwritten).

In particular, lodash defines _.has as:

   function has(object, key) {
      return object ? hasOwnProperty.call(object, key) : false;
   }
   // hasOwnProperty = Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty
2017/05/23

What about?

var x = {'key': 1};

if ('key' in x) {
    console.log('has');
}
2017/07/05

Note: the following is nowadays largely obsolete thanks to strict mode, and hasOwnProperty. The correct solution is to use strict mode and to check for the presence of a property using obj.hasOwnProperty. This answer predates both these things, at least as widely implemented (yes, it is that old). Take the following as a historical note.


Bear in mind that undefined is (unfortunately) not a reserved word in JavaScript if you’re not using strict mode. Therefore, someone (someone else, obviously) could have the grand idea of redefining it, breaking your code.

A more robust method is therefore the following:

if (typeof(x.attribute) !== 'undefined')

On the flip side, this method is much more verbose and also slower. :-/

A common alternative is to ensure that undefined is actually undefined, e.g. by putting the code into a function which accepts an additional parameter, called undefined, that isn’t passed a value. To ensure that it’s not passed a value, you could just call it yourself immediately, e.g.:

(function (undefined) {
    … your code …
    if (x.attribute !== undefined)
        … mode code …
})();
2017/07/21

if (x.key !== undefined)

Armin Ronacher seems to have already beat me to it, but:

Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty = function(property) {
    return this[property] !== undefined;
};

x = {'key': 1};

if (x.hasOwnProperty('key')) {
    alert('have key!');
}

if (!x.hasOwnProperty('bar')) {
    alert('no bar!');
}

A safer, but slower solution, as pointed out by Konrad Rudolph and Armin Ronacher would be:

Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty = function(property) {
    return typeof this[property] !== 'undefined';
};
2017/05/23

You can use the in operator to check if the property exists on an object:

x = {'key': 1};
alert("key" in x);

You can also loop through all the properties of the object using a for - in loop, and then check for the specific property:

for (prop in x) {
    if (prop == "key") {
        //Do something
    }
}

You must consider if this object property is enumerable or not, because non-enumerable properties will not show up in a for-in loop. Also, if the enumerable property is shadowing a non-enumerable property of the prototype, it will not show up in Internet Explorer 8 and earlier.

If you’d like a list of all instance properties, whether enumerable or not, you can use

Object.getOwnPropertyNames(x);

This will return an array of names of all properties that exist on an object.

Finally, you can use the typeof operator to directly check the data type of the object property:

if (typeof x.key == "undefined") {
    alert("undefined");
}

If the property does not exist on the object, it will return the string undefined. Else it will return the appropriate property type. However, note that this is not always a valid way of checking if an object has a property or not, because you could have a property that is set to undefined, in which case, using typeof x.key would still return true (even though the key is still in the object).

Update: You can check if a property exists by comparing to the undefined javascript property

if (x.key === undefined) {
    alert("undefined");
}

This should work unless key was specifically set to undefined on the x object

2017/01/23

Source: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/135448
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